In 2020, scientists from Far Eastern Federal University (FEFU) continued their research work in priority areas of the university’s development, including in close cooperation with colleagues from the institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences and in partnership with leading domestic and foreign scientific and technological centers. The results were published in prestigious international journals, two materials were published in Nature.
A protein involved in lung cancer
The important role of the WDR74 protein in the development of primary tumors and metastases of lung cancer and melanoma has been disclosed. When the amount of WDR74 in cancer cells was artificially reduced, the cells lost their ability to metastasize and became more vulnerable to chemotherapy.
Cancer will be cured with glucose tail drug
A prototype of a drug compound against chemotherapy resistant prostate cancer has been developed. Scientists used the tendency of tumor cells to absorb large amounts of glucose (the Warburg effect) and treated tumor cells with drug molecules with a “sewn” glucose tail. The new compound is used to treat various types of cancer, subject to successful clinical trials.
Hydrogels for nerve cell restoration
On the basis of plant polysaccharides (pectins), implantable hydrogels have been developed that can be used as a means of drug delivery and brain recovery after removal of malignant tumors, as well as a medium for growing tissues and organs.
Coronavirus can attack red bone marrow
The mechanism of development of COVID-19 associated with damage to red blood cells has been investigated. It has been established that the SARS-CoV-2 virus can attack the red bone marrow, not only damaging red blood cells already in the blood, but also preventing the formation of new ones.
Metallic glasses were “rejuvenated” and offered to be used in hydrogen energy
Scientists have “rejuvenated” bulk metal glasses to be used in flexible electronics, various sensors and transformer cores, medical implants and satellite protection, etc. The article was published in Nature. Later, metal glasses were proposed to be used in hydrogen power engineering, replacing expensive palladium in hydrogen systems. A method for saturating thin layers of metallic glasses with hydrogen at room temperature has been developed.
Heavy-duty “electric” concrete
Ultra-strong concrete, capable of conducting electricity, can be used for special construction, automatic monitoring of deformations and repair of structures, production of non-freezing runways, road surfaces, as well as surfaces from which electric cars and other equipment will be recharged on the go.
A strategy for the transition to safe nuclear energy
Scientists have optimized the technology for extracting rare earth elements and heavy metal thorium from their most important source – monazite concentrate, stored at State Institution “Uralmonazite”. The metal can be used in the thorium-uranium fuel cycle, the transition to which will ensure the environmentally friendly development of the industry, since the technology excludes the accumulation of long-lived radioactive waste.
Water purification from radioactive elements by “tungsten bronze”
A technology for the synthesis of a sorbent has been proposed, with the help of which it is possible to purify industrial and drinking water from hazardous radionuclides of cesium (137Cs) and strontium (90Sr), to process liquid radioactive waste, to eliminate the consequences of technogenic accidents.
Nano-coating based on elements of the protective layer of the eyes of fruit flies
A safe biodegradable nanocoating has been developed that can be used in almost all areas of human activity, including medicine, nanoelectronics, automotive and textiles. The development is based on protective structures that cover the cornea of the eyes of Drosophila flies. Article published in Nature.
New generation electronics
An approach to the miniature electronics of the future
Scientists propose to control the functionality of a magnetic nanosystem, built on the principle of a sandwich, through the surface roughness of a magnetic film sandwiched between a heavy metal layer and a covering layer.
In thin films: how to store, process and encrypt information in magnetic textures
A technology has been developed that opens the way to the electronics of the future, new methods of visual (topological) cryptography and “green” high-performance data processing centers, the load of which on the Earth’s ecosystem can significantly decrease.
A platform for the development of nanoelectronics and quantum processors
Scientists have developed a microstructure of platinum, cobalt and magnesium oxide, which is capable of operating in a ternary logic mode (“yes” – “no” – “I don’t know”). On its basis, it will be possible to build miniature electronics and spintronics devices, quantum processors operating with qutrites (three states, as opposed to qubits) and neuromorphic systems that imitate the functionality of the human brain.
Physics of living matter
Protein molecules like a tsunami
Scientists have modeled the behavior of the WW domain of the FBP28 protein, taking another important step towards understanding how proteins work. Based on the technique used, the researchers hope to learn more about the workings of cellular mechanisms and viruses. The idea is based on the theory of solitons. It is usually used to model nonlinear phenomena – from the structure of elementary particles to tsunamis.
Ultra-precise laser processing of perovskites
A method for ultra-precise, fast and high-quality laser processing of halide perovskites has been developed. The technology makes it possible to obtain solar batteries of all colors of the rainbow from the material, stamp nanolasers-components of photonic computers in millions and encrypt information.
Functional elements for quantum computers
Experts have designed and laser-printed a resonant grating on the surface of a gold film, with which for the first time they were able to control the emission intensity of quantum dots of mercury telluride (HgTe), which glow in the near and mid-IR range. The resulting ultra-compact bright sources of infrared radiation are the future functional elements of quantum computers and advanced sensor devices.
Mathematics and Robotics
Mathematical algorithms for solving transport problems and working with data
Scientists from FEFU and MIPT are developing mathematical methods of convex optimization for accelerated solution of the widest range of problems in economics, science and many applied areas of human activity, including modeling traffic flows, combating traffic jams and optimizing freight transport routes, calculating the cost of travel, ranking web pages, solving inverse problems.
Numerical methods, methods and software for eliminating errors in hydroacoustic communication systems have been developed, which will make it possible to more accurately determine the spatial coordinates of underwater objects, transfer data, search for minerals and sunken objects. The development of the Arctic and Antarctic cannot be imagined without hydroacoustic communication.
The age of comets learned to determine the content of carbon
Astrophysicists have proposed to determine the residence time of comets inside the solar system by the amount of carbon matter in their composition: the less, the older. The conclusion was made based on the results of observations of the comet ATLAS (C / 2019 Y4), which approached the Earth in May 2020 and collapsed.
NTI Center for Neurotechnologies, VR and AR
Neuromodulation for spinal patients
Scientists have proposed to revise the practice of treating spastic syndrome – one of the main complications after severe spinal injuries. A new protocol for personalized selection for treatment has already been introduced at the FEFU Medical Center: based on preliminary testing, patients are offered to use promising neurostimulators instead of the rather dangerous implantation of a baclofen pump.
Neuromodulating the spinal cord with electricity using a small implantable stimulator (SCS) gives patients additional hope for maximum recovery. Research in this area is one of the priority research areas of the FEFU NTI Center.
Far Eastern Federal University is a leading center for scientific and technological development in the Far East of Russia with priority areas of research in the field of the World Ocean, biomedicine, new materials, IT areas, digital economy and a number of others.
On behalf of the President of the Russian Federation Vladimir Putin, a world-class scientific, educational and technological center is being created on Russky Island, including a technopark, a digital development center, engineering departments, research and development centers of state corporations and leading technology companies of the country. To provide them with qualified personnel, FEFU formed a pool of Russky.Digital IT educational programs and strengthened their training with an emphasis on applied research.Far Eastern Federal University is developing transregional cooperation, a special case of which in 2020 was the interregional university consortium created by FEFU, IKBFU and Sevastopol State University. The universities agreed to jointly conduct research in the study of the World Ocean and coastal zones.
Source: Far Eastern Federal University