Turkey

RegionSouthern Europe
CapitalAnkara
LanguageTurkish
Population83,154,997
Expenditure on higher education2,3 %
Unemployment13,6 %
EuroUniversities in top 1000
EuroUniversities in top 2500
EuroUniversities in top 5001
EuroUniversities in top 100010
Students7,550,000
Foreigner students1,9 %
Enrollment rate in higher education72,5 %

Turkey is a transcontinental country located mainly on the Anatolian peninsula in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeastern Europe. The tertiary education system in Turkey covers all institutions implementing at least two-year programs after secondary education. The higher education system consists of universities, high technology institutes, higher vocational schools and other off-university higher education institutions (higher police and military schools and academies) (ISCED 2011; 5, 6, 7 and 8 levels). Most of the higher education institutions are public institutions and the rest of them are foundation institutions. Universities consist of full-time four-five-six-year faculties that lead to bachelor’s degrees and vocational education based four years higher schools, two-year higher vocational schools with completely vocationally oriented education leading to associate degrees and institutes (graduate schools) that execute graduate programs. Furthermore, higher vocational schools can be founded under the auspice of foundations independent of universities. Besides, Anadolu University and Atatürk University have associate degree programs and bachelor’s degree programs that conduct education via distant education.

Turkey has a total of 207 higher education institutions including 130 states, 72 foundation universities, and 5 foundation vocational schools. All of the 81 cities in Turkey host a university or universities.

Universities at all levels of vocational and academic degrees are institutions authorized to provide public legal entities. Universities as corporate bodies are entitled to award any vocational and academic degrees at every level. Not any school types or stages exist between secondary education and higher education (ISCED 2014). State universities are directly funded by the state and do not have any connection with either a foundation or a private institution. Foundation universities, on the other hand, are founded under the state’s observation and examination without any financial focus. 

Refer to detailed information on higher education institutions

Bachelor

Branches of Study

A bachelor programme consists of 8 semesters (4 years, 240 ECTS). Detailed information on this section can be found on the official website.

Admission Requirements

The Higher Education Institutions Examination (YKS) is conducted by the Measurement, Selection and Placement Center (ÖSYM) in order to enable the students to be placed in higher education programs and to be placed according to their preferences.

Higher Education Institutions Exam (YKS):

YKS is a 3-session exam. All applicants applying to YKS are required to attend the Basic Proficiency Test (TYT). Other sessions are optional.

The first session is the Basic Proficiency Test (TYT).  The test  is carried out in the following fields.

-Turkish

-Liberal arts

-Medical Mathematics

-Science

In the 2nd Field Qualification Tests (AYT), the candidates are asked the following four areas:

-Turkish Language and Literature and Social Sciences I Test (Turkish Language and Literature, History I and Geography I)

-Social Sciences II Test (History II, Geography II, Philosophy Group)

-Mathematical Test

-Fen Science Test

The third session is the Foreign Language Test (YDT).

Candidates with a score of 150 or higher in the TYT will be able to choose higher education programs that take students with TYT points. Candidates who scored 150 or more in TYT, say, SAY, ORAL, EA, DIL scores of 180 and above, with these point types and students with undergraduate degree programs with TYT score will be able to choose the undergraduate programs.

Candidates who have a score of 150 or more in TYT have the right to choose only associate degree programs. These candidates do not have the right to choose undergraduate, undergraduate and graduate programs with SAY, SEQUENCE, EA and LANGUAGE score.

In order to apply for higher education programs that take students with a special aptitude test, TYT score should be 150 and above (for disabled students 100 and above).

Central Selection and Placement: Candidates in the central placement will be placed by ÖSYM to higher education programs if any, additional scores, higher education programs related preferences and the quotas and conditions of these programs  exist. In this method, students are determined by following the central exam and placement process described above

Selection and Placement with Special Ability Exam: This form of examination and placement requires special skills such as sports, fine arts and so on in order to place students in programs in the fields. In order to participate in special talent exams and placement process, candidates are required to have a score on or above the base score determined for programs with special abilities. Candidates who fulfill the special conditions and programs can apply to the relevant higher education institution. Institutions place students according to the principles set by the Higher Education Board by performing practical talent exams in order of success in the order of candidates and place within the quotas.

See the website of OSYM for details. 

Curriculum

Universities have academic autonomy in the areas of creating their own training programs, training and research services, preparation, presentation and evaluation in academic and vocational areas. Minimum and maximum number of credits that need to be taken each semester, thesis and theoretical course content are determined by the senate in line with the basic principles determined by the Board of Higher Education (Article 44 of Higher Education Law 2547/44b). As stated above, the content of the academic programs within institutions of higher education is determined by the Senate. The exception to this situation is that the content of the Faculty of Education as primary school teaching program and the curriculum of teacher training is determined by the Council of Higher Education. However, undergraduate teacher training programs of the Faculty of Education were re-structured in the 2006-2007 academic year and mandatory courses were stretched and 25% of the courses were given the authority to determine the courses.

Ataturk’s principles and History of Turkish Language, Foreign Language, and occupational health and safety occupational safety and training for those who may be a specialist in Faculty of occupational health and safety are the mandatory courses. All of these courses are to be planned and implemented at least two years (Higher Education Law no: 2547 numbered, Article 5/i).

Teaching Methods

There is not a regulation on the selection of teaching methods at a national or institutional level. Generally instructors are free to choose teaching methods appropriate to the course they teach. Different kinds of materials/classes/methods can be used. For example, computer-aided instruction, e-learning, etc., such as new technologies are increasingly developed. Materials and applications are paid, but the computer can be utilized free in the libraries.

Progression of Students

Each university has its own rules about passing the courses or classes issued by its own senate. The same common aspects of the common applications of passing a course or class university based on the legal framework for the preparation and the similarities are many. Students’ progress in (1) preparatory classes (foreign language) and (2) interval classes can be handled in two groups. Field qualifications and credits are determined in accordance with Turkish Higher Education Qualifications Framework (THEQF). In this context, minimum and maximum credit limits to be taken each semester, compulsory and elective courses, and courses with prerequisites are determined by education regulations each university prepares. Students take courses within the limits prescribed in these regulations. A student who achieves the passing grade and provides minimum attendance is considered to be successful in the course. Courses students fail will not prevent them from moving up to a next stage or taking courses from an upper class. Students who have failed course/courses in the first semester must retake them. However, in the case of overlapping of repeated lessons with the semester course, the student may not take one of the courses as the relevant board argues/decides. There is not a difference between compulsory and elective courses. In case of failure, elective courses also must be taken again. Excluding foreign language preparatory class, students have to complete their education, regardless of whether they make enrolment or not, in seven years for four-year programs, eight years for five-year programs, and nine years for six-year programs. Preparatory program is at most two years. However, this time at the end of year, students who graduate from educational institutions are granted two additional exams for all courses they have failed. Those who diminish their failed courses to five are given three semesters, and similarly those who fail up to five courses are given four semesters (two academic semesters based on passing grade system). Those who fail only one course are given limitless opportunities to retake the exam of the course they fail. Even though they have taken passing grades from all the courses they take in order to graduate from the program, students who do not achieve required GPA are given the opportunity to retake the exam of the course they wish at the end of the semester. They are not expected to attend the courses except for those with practical applications. Students who have not taken the exam three times in a row are considered to waive their right and cannot benefit from this right. Students who have to take the limitless exams continue to pay tuition fees. However, these students do not benefit other student rights excluding examination right. Open education students are not limited to these as long as they benefit from student rights (2547 Higher Education Law Article 45 / c).

Employability

Although it is legally mandatory that professional consultancy is provided, there is not a structure that can be generalized to all higher education institutions. Higher education institutions are expected to help their graduates find jobs in cooperation with public institutions (2547 Higher Education Law, Article 47). Career Centers are established to provide these services in some higher education institutions. Through these centers or various departments of professional presentation meetings for students, the representatives of private sector participation in these activities are provided with support. In this way students and employers are trying to put everything together.

Student Assessment

Education principles are specified in the examination regulations based on the needs of higher education institutions, characteristics of organizations and granted diplomas based on this by each university (2547 Higher Education Law Article 43/a). The basic form of written exams of faculties and colleges in knowledge assessment is conducted unless the context otherwise requires. In addition, examinations may be written and/or verbal form. Apart from these tests, homework, projects, laboratory/workshop and so on also may affect the achievement points. This effect of the studies achievement scores is determined by a regulation issued by the university. According to Higher Education Law with a No 2547, such issues as how to carry out teaching activities by dividing how many semesters on condition that it should not exceed three semesters in higher education institutions; minimum and maximum amounts of credit to be taken in each semester; what will be the knowledge, skills and aptitudes that each diploma program will make the diploma owner attain and how to carry out assessment and evaluation; how to make the students attain foreign language proficiency through preparatory classes or by means of other ways and how to assess foreign language knowledge level; enrolment, attendance, application, the contents of thesis and theoretical courses, prerequisite courses, types of exams and their effect on course final grades; taking the views of external partner meaning the ones whose knowledge, views and experiences are needed with regard to the employment of students after graduation in diploma programs; the adjustment of the credits of the courses taken in other domestic and foreign higher education institutions; accreditation of the proficiencies attained beforehand with regard to completion of related program; making minor and double major by taking some courses from different diploma programs; internal and external quality insurance applications concerning the  continual improvement of teaching processes through practice, theory, distant and open education in order to get a diploma, and other issues with regard to the conduct of education are determined by the senates of higher education institutions in line with the basic principles determined by the Council of Higher Education (Article No 44/d). Proficiency, placement or all other tests assessing the success could be either implemented as paper based and concurrently or carried out on electronic media in a way that allows to ask each candidate different questions in different times by gathering questions from a question bank protected in a secure way by sorting out the questions in terms of its difficulty. The principles with regard to the preparation of the questions to be asked in the exams, forming a question bank and cyphering it, saving exam questions on paper or electronic media and providing the security of the exam are all determined by the Council of Higher Education (Article 44/d).

Certification

Students who complete an eight-year degree of a faculty or school (4 years) with the complete foreseen requirements for graduation are entitled to receive a bachelor diploma. However, at least ten half-year is equivalent to master’s degree programs. University students in certain programs of bachelor’s degree receive a second difference lessons in a close field in addition to complete domain, which is called “double major”. How this process is made is regulated in “The Regulation of Higher Education Institutions in Transition Between Programs in, Double Majors, and Regulation on Inter Multicultural Principles for the Credit Transfers” by the provisions. According to the regulations, students who successfully complete a bachelor’s degree that they are registered outside major program can be given “Double Major Degree”. In addition, depending on the provisions of the same regulation, on condition that the student enrolled in diploma program bear the conditions determined, the program the student took at a limited number regarding certain issues within the content of a diploma program within the same higher education institution is called “minor program” and those completing the mentioned program are only given a certificate of achievement (minor certificate) in the field they took. These documents are not equivalent to a diploma.

Second Cycle Programmes

Branches of Study

According to the Regulation for Post Graduate Education issued on 20th April 2016, master program is carried out in two ways, with and without thesis. The issues regarding the permission for transition between master programs with and without thesis which is under the authority of higher education institutions with regard to which institute, department/art major will carry out these program and how they will do it are arranged with a regulation that will be made by senates (Article No 4 (1)). Master program with thesis provides the student with an access to information, gathering, commenting and evaluating it by using scientific research methods (Article No 6 (1). On condition that master program with thesis has twenty credits at least in total, it is made up of seven courses at least, one seminar and thesis study. Seminar course and thesis have no credit and it is evaluated as success or failure. Master thesis with thesis is made up of 120 ECTS in total, on condition that it should have 60 ECTS credits, eight credits and a project study including thesis, in one academic year at least (Article No 6 (3). The duration of the master program with thesis is four semesters regardless of enrolment, starting from the semester when the courses enrolled, excluding the period spent in the preparatory class and it is completed in six semesters the most (Article 7(1).

Master program without thesis shows how to use the current knowledge in practice by making students attain information in vocational issues (Article 11 (1).  Master program without thesis is made up of thirty credits in total and of ten courses and one semester project on condition that it must be 90 ECTSs at least (Article 11 (2). The duration of master program without thesis is two semesters the least regardless of enrolment for each semester, starting from the semester when the courses enrolled, excluding the period spent in the preparatory class and it is completed in three semesters the most (Article 12(1), as given in the regulation concerned.

Admission Requirements

According to Article 2 of the Regulation on Graduate Studies, candidates need to have completed a bachelor program, to have at least 55 points from the Examination of Academic Personnel and Postgraduate Education Entrance conducted by the OSYM. In addition to required points, GPA and interview results may be assessed. Issues related to this assessment and other documents that may be needed (reference letter, an intention letter, international standard examinations) are identified by the relevant senate.

Higher education institutions might not ask for ALES scores in the admission of master program without thesis and if required, the base point is determined by the senates.

The principles regarding the application of graduate candidates or the ones in the position of graduation over with how many percentages they will be evaluated on condition that it must not be less than 50% of ALES score and other issues concerning the admission of students to post graduate education are determined by the senate.

Students can be admitted to master programs of higher education institutions only with ALES score, and they can also evaluate undergraduate success average, scientific assessment in written exam and/or interview results (Article 5), stated in the regulation concerned.

Curriculum

The teaching program of post graduate programs in the departments/major arts in institutes is the total sum of compulsory/elective courses, thesis, seminar and other studies that need to be taken in order to graduate from post graduate programs. These syllabi are approved by the board of institute on condition that they meet the minimum content decided by university senates. The issues of which post graduate courses to be opened and by which lecturers they will be taught in a semester are determined by the boards of institutes with the recommendations of the heads of departments/major arts in the related institutes. It is a must to have at least one course containing the issues of scientific research techniques and the ethics of research and publication during post graduate education. The issue of which ones of the courses approved by the board of institute will take place in the syllabus of students is decided by the student and his/her supervisor (Article 34-(2)-(5)-(6). 

Teaching Methods

There is not a regulation on the selection of teaching methods at a national or institutional level. Generally instructors are free to choose teaching methods appropriate to the course they teach. Different kinds of materials/classes/methods can be used. For example, computer-aided instruction, e-learning, etc., such as new technologies are increasingly developed. Materials and applications are paid, but the computer can be utilized free in the libraries.

Progression of Students

According to Regulation of Post Graduate Education, each university course organization determines the arrangements of post graduate education that would be enacted by authorities in the master programs with and without thesis. At the end of four years in the master program with thesis, those who cannot complete the courses with a credit and seminar taking place in teaching program successfully or the ones who cannot fulfil the success conditions/criteria envisaged by the higher education institution in this period, and the students failing in thesis study in the maximum period or those not having a thesis defence are dismissed from the higher education institution (Article 7 (2). The arrangements regarding the students with a possibility of graduation from the master program before its time are determined by the regulations approved by the senate (Article 7 (3). In case an application by the student whose thesis is disapproved, he/she is given a diploma of master program without thesis on condition that he/she fulfils the requirements of credit loads of the courses in the master program without thesis, project delivery and others (Article 9 (9).

The student has to enrol for the term project in the semester when the course of term project is taken and accordingly submit the project and/or report in written form at the end of the semester. The course of semester project has no credit and is evaluated as success or failure (Article 11 (2). According to the principles determined by the senate, a test of proficiency could be applied at the end of the master program without thesis (Article 11 (4). Those attending to the master program without thesis could make a transition to the master program with thesis on condition that the minimum conditions determined by the higher education institution for the master program with thesis they applied for. In this case, the courses taken in the master program without thesis could be substituted for the courses in the master program with thesis by the decision of the board of institute (Article 14 (3).

Employability

The Higher Education Law envisages that higher education institutions should make a collaboration with private and state departments and help their graduates find a job (The Law of Higher Education with a No of 2547, Article No 47). In some higher education institutions, Carrier Centres have been founded in order to give these services. Some vocational publicity meetings have been organized by these centres and various units for students and the representatives of private sector institutions are made to involve in these activities. In this way, it is aimed to bring students and employer institutions together.

Student Assessment

According to the Regulation for Post Graduate Education, master thesis with thesis is made up of 120 ECTS in total, on condition that it should have 60 ECTS credits, eight credits and a project study including thesis, in one academic year at least (Article No 6 (2). Attendance, tests for the courses, course notes, the success in the courses, repeating a course and other principles concerning post graduate programs are determined by the regulations approved by the senate (Article 34 (4).

A student having an education in the master program with thesis writes the results he/she obtains in compliance with the rules determined by the senate and defences the thesis in front of the jury (Article 9 (1).

Thesis supervisor is chosen from the lecturers with qualities to be determined by the senate in the master program with thesis. In the case of absence of a lecturer with these qualities, another advisor from another higher education institution could be chosen as a supervisor by the board of institute within the framework of the principles determined by the university senate. The second supervisor who will be appointed in the cases needing more than one advisor in terms of the quality of the thesis could be a person having a doctoral degree at least from other staff out of university personnel (Article 8 (2).

Master program thesis jury is appointed by the board of institute with the recommendation of thesis supervisor and the head of department/major art in the related institute. The jury is made up of three or five academic members, the thesis advisor of the student, and a lecturer out of his/her university at least. In the case of three jury members, the second thesis supervisor cannot be a member of the jury (Article 9 (3).

Thesis exam is made up of presentation part and question and answer part following it. Thesis exam is carried out in a surrounding with the involvement of lecturers, post graduate students, the experts in the field and other audience (Article 9 (5). Following the completion of thesis defence, the jury decides on acceptance, refusal or correction with absolute majority. This decision is submitted to the related institute within three days following the thesis defence by the head of department/major art at the institute (Article 9 (6). The student with a refused thesis is dismissed from the higher education institution (Article 9 (7). The student having a correction decision defences the thesis with the necessary corrections within three months in front of the same jury. If the student is refused as a failure as a result of this defence, he is dismissed from the higher education institution (Article 9 (8). In the case of application, the student with a refused thesis is given a diploma of master program without thesis on condition that he/she fulfils the requirements of credit loads of the courses in the master program without thesis, project delivery and others (Article 9 (9).

The student of master program without thesis has to enrol for the term project in the semester when the course of term project is taken and submit the project and/or report in written form at the end of the semester. The course of semester project has no credit and is evaluated as success or failure (Article 11 (2). According to the principles determined by the senate, a test of proficiency could be applied at the end of the master program without thesis (Article 11 (4). The presidency of institute department/major art in the master program without thesis determines a lecturer determines an academic member as a supervisor in the selection of the courses for each student and in supervision of carrying out term projects or another lecturer with the a PhD having the same qualities up to the end of the first semester the latest (Article 13 (1).

Certification

A student of master program submitting the master thesis in one month from the time he/she has the thesis exam onwards to the related institute and whose thesis is found suitable in terms of format is given a diploma of master program with thesis (Article 10 (1). On the diploma of master program with thesis is written the program’s name which was approved by the Council of Higher Education in the department/major art of the institute where the student is enrolled (Article 10 (2). 

The student completing the courses with a credit and the term project successfully is given a diploma of master program without thesis. On the diploma of master program without thesis is written the program’s name which was approved by the Board of Higher Education in the department/major art of the institute where the student is enrolled. Those attending to the master program without thesis could make a transition to the master program with thesis on condition that the minimum conditions determined by the higher education institution for the master program with thesis they applied for (Article 14).

Third Cycle (PhD) Programmes

Organization of PHD Studies

Doctorate program makes the student attain necessary skills in order to do independent research, make a comment by analysing scientific problems and data from a large and profound perspective, make analysis and reach new synthesis (Madde 15 (1). Doctorate program is made up of 240 ECTS in total on condition that it should have 60 ECTS credits, twenty credits in total, seven courses, a seminar, proficiency exam, thesis proposal and thesis study in one academic year at least for the students completing a master program with thesis. For the students having an admission with undergraduate degree, it is made up of 300 ECTS in total at least, 14 courses, seminars, proficiency test, thesis proposal and thesis study with two credits at least,  (Article No 15 (2). The duration of the doctorate program is eight semesters regardless of enrolment, starting from the semester when the courses enrolled, excluding the period spent in the preparatory class and it is completed in twelve semesters the most. For those having an admission with undergraduate degree, it is ten semesters and is completed in fourteen semesters the most (Article 17(1).  The maximum period to complete the required courses in the doctorate program successfully is four semesters and for those having an admission in undergraduate degree, it is six semesters. The students failing in courses with a credit in the maximum period or those failing to have the least general average in the courses envisaged by the higher education institution are dismissed from the higher education institution (Article 17 (2).

The study of proficiency in art is a higher education program with a doctorate equivalence aiming at producing an original work of art and an outstanding application and creativity in music and stage arts (24 (1). The program of proficiency in art is made up of 240 ECTS in total on condition that it should have 60 ECTS credits, twenty credits in total, seven courses, practices, thesis study, exhibitions, projects, recitals, concerts, representations and so on, in one academic year at least for the students completing a master program with thesis. For the students having an admission with undergraduate degree, it is made up of 300 ECTS in total at least, fourteen courses, practices, thesis study, exhibitions, projects, recitals, concerts, representations and so on with two credits at least,  (Article No 24 (2). The duration of the program of proficiency in art is eight semesters regardless of enrolment, starting from the semester when the courses enrolled, excluding the period spent in the preparatory class and it is completed in twelve semesters the most. For those having an admission with undergraduate degree, it is ten semesters and is completed in fourteen semesters the most (Article 26(1).  The maximum period to complete the required courses in the program of proficiency in art successfully is four semesters and for those having an admission in undergraduate degree, it is six semesters. The students failing in courses with a credit in the maximum period or those failing to have the least general average in the courses envisaged by the higher education institution are dismissed from the higher education institution (Article 26 (2).

According to the regulation of Post Graduate Education, Specialty in Medicine and Dentistry is equivalent to doctorate and the education is carried out with a basis upon the Regulation of Specialty in Medicine and Dentistry with a Date of 26/4/2014 (Article No35 (7). The purpose of the regulation is to give specialty education and specialty certificates in the fields of medicine and dentistry and arrange the working principles of the Board of Specialty in Medicine. This regulation contains the Board of Specialty in Medicine,  authority institution in the fields of medicine and dentistry education and the programs and people with regard to specialty education.

The specialization period of the veterinary specialization programs are carried out in accordance with the provisions of the ta Regulation on Expertise Training in Veterinary Medicine “, the specialization programs of the Pharmacy Specialization Programs and the duration of the training Regulation on Specialist Training in Pharmacy“.

Admission Requirements

In order to apply a PHD program,

a) Candidates have to hold a bachelor and master’s degree.

b) They have to gain an authority of expertise on Dentistry and Veterinary Medicine, on Pharmacy and Science or expertise in the laboratories of the Ministry of Health. Similarly, they have to take at least 50 ALES score, and 80 score for GPA as determined by the concerned senate except for preparatory programs. Those who apply for the program with their BA degree have to have at least 3.0 GPA score out of 4 or some equivalent scores.

c) Those who apply for the PHD program with their MA degree are assessed through ALES score, bachelor and master degree’s GPA as well as interview results. If determined by the senate, the senate can ask for reference letters, intention letters, and other documents including language scores internationally accepted by institutions. The adoption of the program, which will apply to doctoral programs, as well as the scientific assessment exam ALES be made in writing and / or higher GPA for applicants with a master’s degree can be evaluated with the results of the interview.The issues with regard to this evaluation and other issues regarding the admission of students are determined by the regulations arranged by the related senate (Article 16 (2). Except for preparatory classes, those having an undergraduate education for ten semesters are regarded as the ones having a master degree (Article 16 (2).  How much weight will be taken into consideration not less than 50% of ALES score is determined by the concerned senate. Concerned university or high technology institute can accept students through only ALES score. Ales scores and accepted equivalent scores by the Board of Higher Education can be raised by decision of the senate of each university (Article 16 (3).

The score of ALES (academic personnel and postgraduate education entrance exam) is not required in the admission of students to the departments and major arts of the institutes of fine art faculties and conservatories. In the case of asking ALES, the base score is determined by the senate (Article 16 (4).

This points equivalent of at least 55 points or SSPC by the equivalence of accepted international language exam of the Higher Education Council with the central foreign language exams accepted by equivalence accepted international foreign language exams except for the native language of the student admission to a doctoral program is mandatory to score, to enter these minimum score programs are needed to be raised according to the specifications given by the university senates decision (Article 16 (5).

In order to apply to doctoral programs in basic medical sciences, medical graduates will be determined with a bachelor’s degree and the conditions will be determined by the Senate on not less than six points of Medical Specialization Education Entrance Examination numerical score type or ALES basic medical points taken from not less than 55 points senate. For medical school graduates, who do not have a master degree (dentistry and veterinary medicine graduates of the bachelor’s degree), the numerical score type of ALES will be determined by the Senate’s decision of not less than 55 ALES points. Basic medicine score is obtained by the multiplication of the standard point obtained in Test 1 of medical sciences in the Entrance Exam for the Education of Specialty in Medicine by 0.7 and by the multiplication and addition of the standard point obtained in clinical medical sciences by 0.3. In the admission of students for the doctorate program, basic medicine score or ALES as well as undergraduate and/or master degree score average, scientific evaluation and/or oral exam when necessary could be evaluated. The issues regarding this evaluation and the other documents required for the application of the student (reference letter, the composition explaining why the student would like to have a doctorate degree, international standard exams and so on) are determined with a regulation by the related senate. However, in the admission of students for the basic medicine units, it is a must to have 55 in the exams approved by the Council of Higher Education or an equivalent score in international foreign language exams approved by OSYM (Centre for Evaluation, Selection and Placement) except for their native languages. University senates decide to increase the score if necessary depending on the features of the programs to be selected. On the condition that the score of basic medicine or ALES score is not lower than 50%, how many percentages will be evaluated is determined by the senate. Higher education institution has an admission only with basic medicine score or ALES score (Article 16 (6). 

Phd Canditates’ Status

Students who are accepted to the Phd/proficiency in art programs could study on their own resources. Furthermore, in line with 2547 numbered Higher Education Act, Article 33/a and 50/d of the scope Phd students are employed as research assistants. In addition, institutions of higher education meets the need of a part of their teaching staff with the “1416 numbered Law on Students to be Sent Abroad”. According to the Regulation Regarding the Education of Turkish Students in Foreign Countries, those sent abroad in exchange for a compulsory service in higher education institutions and public departments are appointed for the related posts of the institutions on behalf of which they are sent in order to fulfil their compulsory service responsibilities after completing their education successfully. The ones appointed to the higher education institutions on behalf of which they had their education and public departments have to start their service in its legal duration. Those not starting for their service have to refund the educational expenses with their interest (Article 19).

Supervision

According to the Regulation of Post Graduate Education, the presidency of department/major art proposes a supervisor for thesis in the post of its own university for each student and the subject of the thesis the supervisor and student will carry out together to the institute. The supervisor for thesis and proposal is decided with the decree by the board of institute. When to appoint the supervisor for thesis within the program of the student is determined by the regulation approved by the senate. However, it is a must that the supervisor  be appointed until the end of the second semester the latest. Thesis supervisor is chosen from the lecturers with qualities to be determined by the senate. In the case of absence of a lecturer with these qualities, another advisor from another higher education institution could be chosen as a supervisor by the board of institute within the framework of the principles determined by the university senate. In order that the academic member could supervise a thesis in doctorate program, it is necessary that he/she must have at least more than one thesis supervised.  The second supervisor who will be appointed in the cases needing more than one advisor in terms of the quality of the thesis could be a person having a doctoral degree at least from other staff out of university personnel (Article 18). A follow up committee is formed for the student who is successful in the proficiency test with the proposal of the presidency of the department/major art of the related institute and with the approval of the board of related institute in one month. The committee is made up of three members. Other than the supervisor of thesis, two more members, one from the department/major art and one from another department, take place in the committee. In the case of the appointment of a second supervisor of thesis, this supervisor could participate in the committee if he/she wants. In the periods of the formation of the follow up committee, a change could be made in the members with the proposal of the presidency of the department/major art and the approval of the board of education (Article 20).

For the Program of Proficiency in Art, the presidency of department/major art proposes a supervisor from the academic staff of the university for each student in order to carry out such studies as the selection of courses and practice and thesis, exhibitions, projects, recitals, concerts and representations, and the subjects and titles of such studies as thesis, exhibitions, projects, recitals, concerts and representations, and this proposal is confirmed by the board of senate. When to appoint the supervisor for thesis within the program of the student is determined by the regulation approved by the senate. However, it is a must that the supervisor be appointed until the end of the second semester the latest. In the cases of needing a second supervisor depending on the feature of the study of proficiency in art, a second supervisor could be appointed. In order that the academic member could supervise a thesis in proficiency in art, it is necessary that he/she must have at least more than one thesis, exhibition, project, recital, concert and representation supervised. The second supervisor could be appointed among people having a doctoral/proficiency in art degree at least from other staff out of university personnel. The supervisor could be chosen among the academic members determined by the senate with their qualities and other academic members having a doctoral/proficiency in art degree (Article 27).

According to the Regulation for Specialty Education in Medicine and Dentistry, a subject of thesis and a supervisor is determined for the student of specialty in the first semester of specialty education. The principles with regard to the formation of thesis jury, appointment of supervisor, following up the thesis process and evaluation of thesis are decided by the board (Article 19).

Employability

Universities recruit research assistants in accordance with the “Faculty Instructors on the Roster outside the Central Region and Log in with Central Examination to be implemented in the open Attractions Assignment Exam Regulation on Principles and Procedures”. Appointments outside the central government are permitted in line with the OYP Law called “Law of the Central Government Budget Faculty Development Program” in 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015. Corporate types of points that enable the candidates to be appointed to these positions, in the country. Also, national and international rules and procedures regarding other supports that will be provided to higher education institutions outside the training of them are determined by the Board of Higher Education. In line with this, OYP procedures are determined, and placements of research assistants have been made since 2010. These canditates are given foreign language education, and those who keep their language levels high are given the opportunity to do a graduate study in the institutions of developed universities. In addition, institutions of higher education meets the need of a part of their teaching staff with the “1416 numbered Law on Foreigners to be Sent Abroad“.

Evaluation

According to the Regulation of Post Graduate Education, proficiency test is the assessment of whether the student completing the courses and seminar has a scientific research capability with regard to doctorate study and basic issues and concepts in the field of the student (19 (1).

The time when the student will take the proficiency exam is determined by the regulation approved by the senate. However, it is a must that the student having an admission with master degree has to have the proficiency exam at the end of the fifth semester and the student having an admission with an undergraduate degree has to have the proficiency exam until the end of the seventh semester the latest.

Proficiency exams are arranged and carried out by the doctorate proficiency committee made up of five people proposed by the presidency of department/major art and approved by the board of institute. The committee sets up a committee of exam juries in order to prepare, apply and evaluate exams in different fields. The jury for the exam is made up five academic members including the supervisor on condition that two members at least are out of the higher education institution. Whether the supervisor will have right to vote is determined by the board of institute. In the case of the fact that the supervisor has a right to vote, the jury is made up of six academic members. The meetings of proficiency exam is made open to the listeners comprised of academic members, post graduate students and field experts (Article 19 (3).

Proficiency exam is made in two parts as written and oral one. The student succeeding in the written exam has the oral one. The percentages of the exams and the calculation of the scores are made with the regulations of the board of institute. Exam juries evaluate the success of the student in the written and oral exams and the success and failure of the student is decided by absolute majority. This decision is submitted by the presidency of department/major art to the institute with a letter in three days following the proficiency exam (Article 19 (4).

The student failing at the proficiency exam is given a right to have another exam in the following semester in the part/parts he/she fails. The student failing in this exam again is dismissed from the doctorate program (Article 19 (5).

The jury for the proficiency exam could ask a student succeeding in the exam to take more course/courses on condition that it should not exceed a third of total credit even if he/she completes the course load. The student has to succeed the courses to be decided by the related institute (Article 19 (6).

A student having an admission to the doctorate program with an undergraduate degree and completing seven courses at least could pass to master program. The conditions of passing to a master program is decided by the regulation to be prepared by the senate (Articl 19 (7).

The student completing the proficiency exam successfully defends the thesis proposal comprising the purpose of the study to be carried out, the method and working plan in the presence of follow up committee in six months the latest. The follow up committee decides for approval, correction or refusal of the thesis presented by the student by absolute majority. The student having a refusal has a right to have a new supervisor and/or subject of thesis. In this case, a new follow up committee could be appointed. The student with a wish to carry on with the same supervisor has to defend in three months and the one changing the supervisor and the subject matter has to defend in six months once again. The student having a refusal in this defence as well is dismissed from the higher education institution. For the student having an approval, the follow up committee is gathered twice in a year, between January-June and July-December once in each. The student presents a written report to the members of the committee one month before the date of the meeting. The report should comprise the summary of the studies carried out up to that time and the plan for the time up to the next meeting. The thesis study of the student is evaluated as success or failure by the committee. The student having a refusal twice following each other or three times in different times is dismissed from the higher education institution. The student not defending the proposal without a valid excuse in the period given in first item is regarded as failure and the proposal is refused (Article 21).

A student with a doctorate program defends and writes the outcomes obtained in compatible with the spelling rules approved by the senate and defends his/her thesis in the presence of jury. After the completion of the thesis exam, jury declares the decision to the audience that the thesis has an approval, refusal or correction with absolute majority. The student with an approval is regarded as successful. This decision is submitted by the presidency of the department/major art to the institute with a letter in three days following the thesis exam. The student with a refusal as the thesis is not successful is dismissed from the institute of the higher education. The one having a correction defends the thesis in the presence of the same jury by making necessary corrections in six months the latest. The student having another failure in this defence is dismissed from the higher education institution. The student having an admission from with an undergraduate degree and having a failure is given a diploma of master program without thesis depending on the forth item of article 17, if they wish (Article 22).

According to the Regulation for Specialty Education in Medicine and Dentistry, the student of specialty has to prepare a thesis in order to enter the exam to complete the specialty education in the department. The specialty student having an approval in thesis, completing his/her specialty education period and rotations successfully and having an approval by the program supervisor with regard to the completion of the part defining the core educational program of the specialty education report has a right to enter the exit test of specialty education. This case is submitted in fifteen days to exam juries, faculties to determine the place and date of exam and to deanship in the case of using the related units used together with the health facilities of the Ministry and Institution, the presidency of the institution of Forensic Medicine, to the unit having an authority from the ministry in the education and research hospitals and also to Specialty Education Follow-up System (SEFS) for registration and those completing the procedure are taken to the exam.  The exit tests for specialty education are made on the date and place declared in SEFS. Specialty exam is held in two stages, one regarding to the profession and the other practice and talent exam as given below. If the average scores are over sixty for each stage, the student is regarded as successful. The result of the exam is submitted to the ministry by the head of jury by means of the related institution. Those having a failure at the exam or the ones not entering the exam could be admitted to the exam in six months. The students are not dismissed in this period from their posts. Those having another failure in the second exam or not entering this exam as well are dismissed from the studentship of specialty.

In order to complete the specialty education, it is a must that the thesis must be approved for the students of specialty in the department, he/she has to complete the period of specialty education and rotations with regard to the specialty branch given in the charts and that the part defining the core educational program of the specialty education report must be approved by the program management. It is compulsory that the student has to be successful in the exit test for the specialty education (Article 21).

Certification

According to the Regulation for Post Graduate Education, those being successful in the thesis defence, providing other conditions and having admission in the thesis in terms of formation are given a right to have a doctorate degree (Article 23 (2).

On the diploma of doctorate program the program’s name which was approved by the Council of Higher Education in the department/major art of the institute is written (Article 23 (3). The date of graduation is the date on which the thesis is signed by the exam jury commission. (Article 23 (3)).

In the case of application, the student having an admission to doctorate program and not being able to complete the courses with a credit and/or thesis study in its maximum period and having a failure in the doctorate program is given a diploma of master program without thesis on condition that he/she fulfils the requirements of credit loads of the courses in the master program without thesis, project delivery and others (Article 17 (4).

The student being successful in the study of proficiency in art is given a diploma approved by the Council of Higher Education depending on the features of the art branch on condition that he/she provides other conditions. The date of graduation is the date of exam made after the thesis exam approved (Article 29 (1).

The student whose thesis is approved in terms of formation is given a doctorate diploma of proficiency in art on condition that he/she is successful in thesis defence provides other conditions (Article 29 (2). Students who are not successful in the proficiency study in art, thesis, exhibition, project, recital, concert, representation, are given a diploma without thesis upon their request (Article 28 (6)).

According to the Regulation for Specialty Education in Medicine and Dentistry, the specialty documents of the students completing the specialty education successfully are arranged by the Ministry of Health and registered (Article 22 (2).

In medicine, dentistry, veterinary and pharmacy expertise is equivalent to a doctorate.

Organizational Variation

The programs of proficiency in doctorate/art, Specialty Education in Medicine and Specialty Education in Dentistry carried out under the higher education institutions in Turkey are conducted through formal education. There is no program of proficiency in doctorate/art carried out as open or distant education.

Mobility in Higher Education

Student Mobility

Full time students at a formal education in higher education institutions can participate in mobility at Higher Education. Students attending to an open university or other programmes (distant education) cannot benefit from student mobility activities.

Student mobility is carried out in 2 ways:

  • Student Mobility for Studies (SMS)
  • Student Mobility for Placements (SMP)

A full time student refers to a student who has not completed the work depicted by the diploma/degree yet and who takes 30 ECTS credits of course load per semester. A full time Practicum refers to a full-day Practicum during the students’ program period.

Learning Mobility

Within the frame of the Erasmus+ programs, the learning mobility is that a student of a higher education institution carries on a part of his education the partner higher education institution abroad which is decided with a bilateral contract. It is carried out within the framework of the contracts between the institutions present in the Erasmus Charter for Higher Education and the higher education institution. The duration of activity could be a period between 3 and 12 months (1, 2 or 3 periods depending on the system of some countries) that could be completed in the same academic year acted separately for each training stage. Training stage is expressed as associate degree/undergraduate degree, master and doctorate levels. Students attending to the first year classes of associate and undergraduate programmes and graduate students cannot benefit from the student mobility.

It is mandatory that the participating students are full time students. Students are expected to follow a 30 ECTS (European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System) credits of course load per semester in line with their diploma/degree, and 60 ECTS credits for a year long exchange programs. Academic recognition and equivalence is provided upon the successful completion of the program, and unsuccessful credits are to be retaken in the home institution, as given in the regulationhttp://bit.ly/2bKieQq

Between the years 2004 – 2015, more than 100.000 students were sent abroad within the context of Erasmus in the European Union Education and Youth Programmes and around 40.000 students came to our country (March 2019, Data by Turkish National Agency). 

Erasmus started to be implemented in 2004 (Higher Education Program) covered until today Turkey with projects carried out by the National Agency were sent abroad for more than 130,000 students learning mobility, more than 50,000 students have come to our country in the same context (March 2019) (Turkey National Agency) .



Turkey in 2016, which calls for complete mobility, the more students sender has received in the rankings among the countries France, Germany, Spain, after Italy was the country most higher education students that perform mobility.

Turkey was in the countries sending most students between the years 2015 – 2016 and the mobility was made by the countries Spain, Germany, France, Italy, Poland and England the most and then came Turkey, as stated by the CoHE.

The Law Regarding the Students Sent Abroad numbered 1416 and Regulation of Turkish Students Sent Abroad for Education numbered 29137 and published on official newspaper on 2 October 2014 state that the students mobility is to be carried out in order to compensate for qualified personnel required by the higher education institutions and other state bodies. Students completing their undergraduate education in Turkey or abroad on condition that they have a diploma equivalency could be sent abroad as post graduate students with a scholarship and on condition that they have the qualifications given in the law, in line with the contingencies determined by taking the ideas of the universities working under YOK (Council of Higher Education) and of other institutions.The necessary information of the candidates is published on the webpage of the MoNE. The affairs of secretary are carried out by the Ministry of National Education, General Directorate of Higher Education and Foreign Education. The General Directorate of Higher Education and Overseas Education is located on the web page and all the works and transactions in this subject are carried out by the relevant general directorate.

The scholarship mentioned above is a non-refundable grant. According to the law, it is a must that two fold of the duration that is spent for the purpose of post graduate education abroad must be compensated as an education service. This service is a period of service that could be made as an academic personnel at the university on behalf of which the education is completed or another task likely to be given in the mentioned institution.

The bursars to be sent abroad within the context of the law must meet the condition of having a certain score at the written exam (ALES (The Exam For Academic Post Graduate Education) and a certain graduation score. Depending on the total contingency determined to be sent abroad, the candidates, three fold of the original number, are invited to the interview with their ALES scores starting from the highest one and with the arithmetical mean of other scores and as a result of the interview, the candidates have the right to go abroad.

Bursiyerlere ödenen miktarlar, eğitim alınan ülkenin yerel şartlarına göre değişiklik arz etmektedir. Güncel burs miktarları için http://www.resmigazete.gov.tr/eskiler/2017/06/20170605-7.htm web sayfası ziyaret edilebilir. Mart 2019 itibariyle toplamda resmî burslu öğrenci sayısı 4270’tir.   2018 yılı için seçilen 865 öğrencinin de yurt dışına gönderilmesi işlemleri devam etmektedir (MEB YYEGM).

 

Mevlana Exchange Program is a mobility program that enables exchange of students and teachers in both local and international higher education programs. A modification on Mevlana Exchange Program was published on 23 August 2011 issue of the official newspaper and Council of Higher Education carries out certain provisions for this program. The objective of the regulation concerned is to frame and run the rules and principles of student and academic staff exchange among higher education institutions in both homeland and abroad. Different from all other exchange programs, this mobility program is categorized under the exchange programs without and geographical definition and thus applies to all exchange programs internationally.

Student Mobility for Placement

Within the Erasmus+ programs run by the Turkish National Agency, students enrolled to a higher education program in Turkey are provided with a practicum opportunity in an EU higher education program. This process is defined as an experience accumulation one in a work place or organization about the vocational education or work experience. In student mobility for placement provisions, the sending institution is to be a ECHE possessor higher education institution. The host institution can be a state or a private one specialized in work force areas or education.

The practicum activities are not expected to be compulsory in students’ diploma program. However, the practicum to be experienced should be relevant to students’ vocational education program.

The period of activity is between 2 and 12 months, valid separately for each training level. The students at each stage in their educational period and the ones at their last year of the academic programme could carry out their placement activity in the 12 months after their graduation. Please visit the link. As of the 2018 call year, internship activities can be realized not only with Program Countries but also with eri partner countries 201.

Erasmus started to be implemented in 2004 (Higher Education Program) covered until today Turkey with projects carried out by the National Agency has been sent abroad for more than 23,000 students training more than 9,000 students also did an internship in or on a business a higher education institution in the country (in March 2019, Turkey’s National Agency).

International student mobility in Turkey is mostly carried out at higher education level. Turkish students who would like to have an education abroad prefer USA and European countries (in particular Germany, France and England) the most; whereas the mobility towards Turkey from other countries is mostly from neighbour countries (Turkmenistan; Iran, Azerbaijan and Greece). As for EU countries, it is clear that relatively fewer students prefer Turkish universities, as data indicates.

According to the academic year of 2016-2017, 71 thousand 854 males, 36 thousand 222 females total 108076 foreign students continued their education. The highest number of international students among the universities was in Istanbul (7671), Anatolia (4770), Marmara (2638), Uludağ (3202), Ankara (2518), Bahçeşehir (2053) Gazi (1999), Hacettepe (1844), Aegean, as provided by CoHE.

Turkish citizens are provided some sources by the state as well as people and private institutions in order that they can pursue their education with a scholarship. 

Academic Staff Mobility

Academic Staff Mobility could be realized in two ways:

  • Staff Mobility for Teaching Assignments (STA)
  • Staff Mobility for Staff Training (STT)

Staff Mobility for Teaching Assignments

Staff mobility for teaching assignment is a field of activity which allows a teacher to carry out joint/educational activities with the partner institution where personnel having an assignment of teaching at a higher education institution having ECHE in Turkey could teach students at a university having ECHE in one of the programme countries.

Within the context of staff mobility for teaching assignment, it is also possible that personnel are invited to teach students at a higher education institution having ECHE in Turkey at a localized institution. It is necessary that the personnel to be invited be employed at a business, an education centre, a research centre or any other institution suitable for the definition of a business.

The activity period for the staff mobility for teaching assignment is 2 working days the least excluding travel and 2 months the most. Besides that, it is necessary that 8 hours should be taught at least in order that the activity could be regarded as a valid one. In the cases where the activity is longer than 1 week, the course hours should be increased at a parallel proportion to the compulsory course (As an example, as it is compulsory to teach 8 hours in an activity that will last for 1 week, it should be 16 hours if the duration is 2 weeks). Please click for the details..

In 2004, the Erasmus from today to the European Union Education and Youth Programs (Higher Education Program) covered a total of over 22,000 academic staff has been sent abroad courses aimed at about 15,000 academic staff have come to our country (in March 2019, Turkey’s National Agency).

Mevlana Exchange Program is a mobility program that enables exchange of students and teachers in both local and international higher education programs. A modification on Mevlana Exchange Program was published on 23 August 2011 issue of the official newspaper and Council of Higher Education carries out certain provisions for this program. The objective of the regulation concerned is to frame and run the rules and principles of student and academic staff exchange among higher education institutions in both homeland and abroad. Different from all other exchange programs, this mobility program is categorized under the exchange programs without and geographical definition and thus applies to all exchange programs internationally, as stated by the CoHE.

Staff Mobility for Staff Training

Staff mobility for staff training is a field of activity which allows personnel to have an assignment of teaching at a higher education institution having ECHE in Turkey to learn in one of the programme countries. Within the context of this activity, it is also possible that the person could have some training (training at work, observation processes etc.) in order to improve their skills they have with regard to the related issues. Conference participations are not supported within the context of the activity.

In the context of staff mobility for staff training, it is likely that the person employed at a higher education institution with ECHE could visit a business or a higher education institution with ECHE in order to have training. It is necessary that the business to be visited for training must be an education centre, a research centre a higher education institution (it is not a must that it has ECHE) or a business suitable for the definition of a business. The activity of having staff training is a fulltime activity and grants are paid for the full day training processes. The activity period for the staff mobility for staff training is 2 work days the least excluding travel and 2 months the most, according to the regulations.

From 2004 onwards, more than 12000 academic personnel went abroad within the frame of educational mobility and 6000 visited Turkey, under the EU Educational and Youth Program, Erasmus (March 2019, Turkish National Agency).

During Erasmus+ period,  Germany ranks first among the countries where Turkey has the most personnel movement. Pland, Italy and Spain followed Germany in the number of outgoing personnel.

According to data by CoHE, the number of foreign academicians working in Turkish universities as was 2886 in 2016-2017 academic year. The top-ten citizenship origins of the foreign academicians in Turksih universities are as follows: The USA (364), Syria (334), Azerbaycan (257), The UK (209), Iran (201), NCTR (101), Germany (92), Greece (77), Egypt (75), Canada (74).

On the other hand, instructors are appointed to the universities abroad based on the demand of the Turcology programs and foreign language teaching programs by coordination of Inter-ministerial Cooperation Commission. Currently, 58 instructors work in 28 different countries as Turkish instructors (MEBabdigm, 2018).

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Director of European University of Lefke (EUL) School of Health Prof. Dr. Deniz Şelimen emphasized the importance of health on the occasion of May 12 International Nurses day and conveyed information on nursing profession. While […]

European Higher Education Organization is a public organization carrying out academic, educational and information activities on higher education in Europe.

The EHEO general plan stresses that:

  • Higher education systems require adequate funding and, as an investment in economic growth, public spending in higher education should be protected.
  • The challenges faced by higher education require more flexible governance and funding systems, which balance greater autonomy for education institutions with accountability to stakeholders.

Thus, EHEO plans:

  • improve academic and scientific interaction of universities;
  • protect the interests of universities;
  • interact more closely with public authorities of European countries;
  • popularize European higher education in the world;
  • develop academic mobility;
  • seek funding for European universities.